Mid Mountains Legal Blog

What is Probate & how do I apply for it in NSW?

Anthony Steel

What is a grant of probate?

An estate’s executor/s must collect the deceased’s assets, pay their debts, then distribute the assets to the beneficiaries. A grant of probate is a legal document that authorises an executor/s to follow the provisions of the will in managing a deceased estate.

Once the executor gives the grant of probate to those holding the estate’s assets (including banks or retirement villages holding bonds) or to whom the estate owes a debt they must transfer the assets to the executor (or to beneficiaries named in the will).

The Supreme Court of New South Wales (the Court) determines uncontested applications for grants of probate (known as grants in common form).

The Court can only grant probate if the deceased’s assets are located in New South Wales. If they are in more than one state or country the executor/s may have to apply for a grant in each state or country. However, assets held in other Australian states and in certain countries may only require a reseal of the NSW grant. This article is restricted to grants of probate in NSW

Must I obtain a grant of probate?

Not every deceased estate has to obtain probate. The type, size and value of the assets may be such (e.g. smaller amounts ) that an asset holders may release assets without the need to obtain probate.

Is there a difference between joint tenants and tenants-in-common?

When the deceased’s assets were jointly owned (i.e. where the co-owners [called tenants] did not own distinct shares of the property), the property automatically passes to the remaining joint tenant/s. For example, if all the deceased’s assets were held as a joint tenant with a surviving beneficiary/s probate would not be required.

Probate is required if the deceased owned real estate solely in their name or as a tenant in common (i.e. as a distinct share) with a surviving beneficiary. The certificate of title (or title deed) shows if the ownership of real estate was as joint tenants or tenants in common. New South Wales Land Registry Services (NSWLRS) can provide this information.

What are the asset holder’s requirements to release assets?

Asset holders differ in their requirements for releasing assets. If there is no real estate, the executor (especially if they are the sole beneficiary) should ask the asset holders (e.g. banks, superannuation funds, insurers) if they will transfer the assets without a grant of probate. They may be willing to do so if the executor gives them a certified copy of the death certificate, the will, a declaration signed by the beneficiary/s of their entitlement, and/or an indemnity in case there is subsequently a claim on the estate.

Superannuation is not considered part of the estate. Depending on the terms of the policy, neither are the proceeds of life insurance. However, a trustee may require probate before they will determine who is entitled to superannuation or insurance proceeds.

What is the timeframe for lodging an application?

If an executor files an application for probate after 6 months from the date of death of the deceased, the court requires an explanation for the delay by way of an explanation in the affidavit of executor or an Affidavit of Delay (using UCPR Form 40).

Who can apply?


The Will-maker (testator) should nominate an executor/s in the will. If an executor is not nominated in the will it is not possible to apply for probate. In that case a beneficiary named in the will can apply for letters of administration with the will annexed.

The testator may nominate an executor as their first choice (the instituted executor/s) and an alternate executor (the substitute executor/s) if the instituted executor predeceases them or is unable or unwilling to act. A substitute executor can only apply for probate if the conditions specified in the will for substituted appointment exist.

If the testator has nominated more than one instituted/substitute executor all of the named executors should apply unless one or more has died (the death certificate must be attached) or have filed a court form indicating that they do not want to apply (renouncing probate). The affidavit in support must explain why other executors are not applying.

If the instituted executor predeceased the testator, the substitute executor refers in the affidavit of executor to the case number of the probate application for the deceased executor or attaches a copy of the death certificate.

If the executor’s name in the will differs from their name in the application for probate this must be explained (e.g. by annexing a copy of their marriage certificate to the affidavit of executor).

If the testator has not specifically named an executor (eg. appointing someone holding an office at the time of their death), the affidavit of executor must include evidence supporting the applicant’s entitlement to apply.

Marriage or divorce after execution of Will

A testator marrying or remarrying after making a will may revoke the will. If the testator married after the will was made, you should seek legal advice as to whether the will has been revoked. A will which says it was made “in contemplation of marriage” would not normally be revoked by a subsequent marriage.

Divorce also normally revokes the former spouse’s entitlement under the will and their rights to be the executor.

Renouncing or resigning as executor

If an executor appointed under a will is unwilling to take on the role they can renounce probate. If there are several instituted executors, the remaining instituted executors can apply. Otherwise, the substitute executor/s may apply if the will says that the substitution is triggered by the instituted executor’s renunciation of probate or their unwillingness to act.

An executor’s renunciation of probate is included in the notice of intention to apply for probate (published on the Online Registry).

Executors cannot renounce probate once a grant has been made. An executor can be removed after a grant has been made only by a Court order revoking the grant of probate.

An executor may delegate their executorial duties only to the NSW Trustee and Guardian or a trustee company.

Where an executor/s is unwilling or unable to apply but is not prepared/is unable to formally renounce probate, a notice must be served on the executor/s requiring them to apply for probate. If they do not comply with the notice:-

  1. the other executor/s may apply without that executor; or
  2. there is no other executor/s, a beneficiary may apply for letters of administration with the will annexed.

If an executor is unable to apply or renounce for medical reasons or is overseas or cannot be located, evidence must be provided with the grant of probate reserving their right to later apply.

The Will

The original Will

The original will (and any codicils) must be filed with the probate application and will be retained by the Court. A will or codicil must be in writing and signed by the testator and two witnesses and be verified that the will is not a carbon or photocopy.

If you cannot find the original will but have found a copy, or if the will is unsigned or has not been properly witnessed, it may still be possible to apply for probate.

Unsigned/undated Will

If the will is undated, you must provide evidence as to when it was executed. If there is another will, this will establish which is the latest will. You should provide an affidavit by an attesting witness or from people with information as to when the will was made or the possible range of dates when it was made.

An affidavit of an attesting witness will be required if there is any doubt as to the proper execution and witnessing of the will. If the will has any hand-written amendments not initialled by the testator and the witnesses, an affidavit of attesting witness as to whether the amendments were made before the will was executed will be required. Affidavit evidence may also be required if it appears that other documents were attached to the will which have subsequently been removed, or if the will has been torn or defaced since it was executed.


A codicil is a document that amends a previously executed will. If the testator has made a codicil/s, the application will be for probate of the will and the codicil/s.

Applying for Probate on a copy of a Will

If the original will cannot be found but there is a copy which is believed to be the last will of the deceased then the executor named in the copy may be able to apply for probate on the copy of the will. The actual copy of the will must be filed with the probate application.

Searches must be done to locate the original Will

The affidavit of executor must explain where the copy was found and set out all the searches made for the original will or any later will. These must include:-

  1. searches through the deceased’s personal papers and effects;

If the copy shows that the original will was prepared by a solicitor then enquiries should be made with the firm of solicitors to check that they do not have the original will, and as to their usual practice when wills were prepared for their clients (ie whether they normally held originals in safe custody or gave the client the original).

If the will was last held by a solicitor then an affidavit by the solicitor or someone in that solicitor’s firm should be provided as to the searches they have undertaken for the original will.

If the evidence suggests that the original will was last in the possession of the deceased there is a presumption that the deceased revoked the will by destroying the original. To rebut this presumption, the application must be supported by evidence indicating that the deceased did not intend to revoke the will. This can include:

  1. conversations with the deceased regarding their will, and
  2. evidence of no substantial change of circumstances since the will was made that may have led to an expectation that the deceased may have changed their will.

List those entitled under intestacy

The affidavit of executor must say who would be entitled if there was no will (called “intestacy”).

A limited grant

A grant of probate on a copy of a will is a limited grant. Although the original will is unlikely to be found, the grant is limited until the original will is found and an application for a grant of probate of the original will is made.

Applying for Probate of an informal Will

A will must be signed by the testator and witnessed by two witnesses who both saw the testator sign. Nevertheless the Court may grant probate for a will that does not meet these requirements if it is satisfied that the deceased intended the document to be their will.

Caveats and contested proceedings

A person with an interest in a deceased estate can file a form called a caveat preventing the Court from issuing a grant. There is a filing fee and a caveat remains in force for 6 months. It must be served on known applicants or potential applicants for a grant of probate or administration of the estate.

Reasons for filing a caveat include where:-

  1. someone wants to challenge the validity of an informal will; or
  2. a will that appears to be valid but it is claimed that the will is a forgery; or
  3. there is doubt as to the testator’s testamentary capacity, or
  4. it is claimed that the will was executed under undue pressure; or
  5. there is more than one possible will naming different executors.

An executor who wants to proceed with an application for a grant of probate can apply to the Court for removal of a caveat if they believe that the caveator has no standing or that there is no real dispute as to a will’s validity.

If there is doubt as to a will’s validity, contested proceedings can be commenced for probate to be granted in solemn form. Such proceedings are commenced by statement of claim and determined by a judge.


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